Modus Operandi of illegal recruiters
Modus Operandi of illegal recruiters

Source: Smarter Pinoy Abroad Book / Authors: Miriam M. Tanedo-Carino, bernardita Catalla, Fernando Dela Cruz, Raffy David, Lucita Lazo and Chona Siene-Yap


  1. Tourist worker scheme: workers leave the country as tourist but are leaving for employment abroad.
  2. Escort services: workers are “escorted” at the airports and seaports and allowed to leave even without the required travel documents.
  3. Blind ads: advertisements for overseas employment published in dailies do not indicate the name of the recruiter but provide a Post Office Box to which applications may be submitted.
  4. By correspondence: applications, with a seemingly minimal fee, are submitted through mail.
  5. Assumed identity: workers leave under another name either by submitting documents of another person in obtaining a passport, or using a baklas passport. Minors are usually deployed through this scheme.
  6. Backdoor exit: workers leave via illegal exit routes or through exit points where immigration control is lax. They leave on cargo ships or boats.
  7. Direct hiring: workers are recruited allegedly for direct hiring by foreign employers and are deployed either as tourist or through other illegal means.
  8. Trainee worker scheme: workers are recruited as trainees, e.g Hotel and Restaurant Management students leave under a traineeship program but eventually land jobs in hotels/restaurants abroad.
  9. Tie up or kabit system: unlicensed recruiters tie up with licensed agencies and recruit workers through the facilities of the latter. Workers are deployed under job order of the licensed agency but actually work for another employer abroad. Or, a foreign principal of an unlicensed recruiter is registered / accredited under the name of a licensed agency.
  10. Visa assistance or immigration consultancy scheme: unlicensed recruiters operate as immigration consultancy or visa facilitation firms but actually hire workers on immigrant visa. Some conduct orientation seminars but are actually job recruitment activities.
  11. Camouflaged delegates in seminars & sporting events: workers leave as participants in seminars or sports events but actually intend to work abroad.
  12. Au pair: an inter-cultural program wherein a host family sponsors a person to study language or culture but is actually expected to do household chores for a monthly allowance in exchange for the house stay.
  13. Mail order bride: marriage is arranged by brokers between a Pinay and a foreigner. The Filipina wife ends up being a domestic helper to her husband and his family, or in worse situations abroad.

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